Image content analysis is used as a tool by researchers to determine patterns of use when studying large groups of images. Illustrations from both editions of Chambers's Encyclopaedia were sorted into subject categories to enable research into trends in illustration frequency and type, when comparing the two editions published 20 years apart.

The categories most frequently illustrated in both editions of Chambers's Encyclopaedia are:

The three categories which have changed the most between the first and second editions are:

The graphs below show the number of illustrations per category in the first and second editions.

Number of illustrations per category: First edition

Above: Number of illustrations per category: First edition

Number of illustrations per category: Second edition

Above: Number of illustrations per category: Second edition

The images below show examples from the categories identified.

Elephant, from the 1st edition

Above: Elephants from First Edition, volume 4, page 2, 1862. An example of the vertebrates category.

Maize Plants, from Second Edition, volume 10, page 441, 1892.

Above: Maize Plants, from Second Edition, volume 10, page 441, 1892. An example of the botanical category.

Ruins of Temple of Aegina, from First Edition, volume 1, page 53, 1860.

Above: Ruins of Temple of Aegina, from First Edition, volume 1, page 53, 1860. An example of the architecture category.

Thomson experimental gears, from First Edition, volume 9, page 103, 1867.

Above: Thomson experimental gears, from First Edition, volume 9, page 103, 1867. An example of the machines and vehicles category.

Different kinds of bacteria, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 649, 1888.

Above: Different kinds of bacteria, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 649, 1888. An example of the microorganisms category.

Skeleton of bat, from First Edition, volume 1, page 740, 1860.

Above: Skeleton of bat, from First Edition, volume 1, page 740, 1860. An example of the medical/anatomical category.

Great Water-beetle and larva, from First Edition, volume 3, page 725, 1862.

Above: Great Water-beetle and larva, from First Edition, volume 3, page 725, 1862. An example of the invertebrates category.

Confucius, from Second Edition, volume 3, page 411, 1889.

Above: Confucius, from Second Edition, volume 3, page 411, 1889. An example of the human and mythic figures category.

New York map, from Second Edition, volume 7, page 483, 1891

Above: New York map, from Second Edition, volume 7, page 483, 1891. An example of the maps category.

Vertebrates

This category includes descriptions of any external features of whole non-human animals, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. It contains the most numerous category of all illustrations in both editions of Chambers's Encyclopaedia. These are some examples:

  • Canary, from First Edition, volume 2, page 554, 1861.

    Canary, from First Edition, volume 2, page 554, 1861.
  • Norwich Canary, from Second Edition, volume 2, page 702, 1888.

    Norwich Canary, from Second Edition, volume 2, page 702, 1888.
  • John Dory, from First Edition, volume 3, page 643, 1862.

    John Dory, from First Edition, volume 3, page 643, 1862.
  • John Dory, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 64, 1889.

    John Dory, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 64, 1889.
  • Elephants from First Edition, volume 4, page 2, 1862.

    Elephants from First Edition, volume 4, page 2, 1862.
  • Heads of African and Indian Elephants, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 289, 1889.

    Heads of African and Indian Elephants, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 289, 1889.
  • Orang-Outang, from First Edition, volume 7, page 92, 1860.

    Orang-Outang, from First Edition, volume 7, page 92, 1860.
  • Orang-outang, from Second Edition, volume 7, page 618, 1888.

    Orang-outang, from Second Edition, volume 7, page 618, 1888.

Botanical

This category contains plants, details of plant features, such as leaves, flowers stems, seeds, fruit, as well as fungi and trees. This was the second most numerous category of all illustrations in both editions. These are some examples:

  • Apple-blossom, from First Edition, volume 1, page 327, 1860.

    Apple-blossom, from First Edition, volume 1, page 327, 1860.
  • Branch of Apple with Young Fruit, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 348, 1888.

    Branch of Apple with Young Fruit, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 348, 1888.
  • Banyan-Tree, from First Edition, volume 1, page 674, 1860.

    Banyan-Tree, from First Edition, volume 1, page 674, 1860.
  • Banyan-Tree, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 720, 1888.

    Banyan-Tree, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 720, 1888.

Machines/vehicles

A machine is an apparatus with one or more moving part that performs a definitive function while applying mechanical power to perform a particular task. This category was among the top four most frequently illustrated subjects in both editions.

  • Section of a Dredging-machine, from First Edition, volume 3, page 668, 1862.

    Section of a Dredging-machine, from First Edition, volume 3, page 668, 1862.
  • Dredging machine, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 91, 1889.

    Dredging machine, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 91, 1889.
  • Beam engine from First Edition, volume 9, page 102, 1867.

    Beam engine from First Edition, volume 9, page 102, 1867.
  • Horizontal engine, from Second Edition, volume 9, page 704, 1892.

    Horizontal engine, from Second Edition, volume 9, page 704, 1892.

Medical/anatomical

Illustrations that have been classified under this category display people and animals internally, especially depicting skeletons, internal organs, or schematic diagrams showing how parts of the body work. This category was among the top four most frequently illustrated subjects in both editions.

  • Organs of the Chest and Abdomen from First Edition, volume 1, page 8, 1860.

    Organs of the Chest and Abdomen from First Edition, volume 1, page 8, 1860.
  • Organs of the Chest and Abdomen, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 10, 1888.

    Organs of the Chest and Abdomen, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 10, 1888.
  • Carnivora: Jaws and Teeth of Lion, from First Edition, volume 2, page 624, 1861.

    Carnivora: Jaws and Teeth of Lion, from First Edition, volume 2, page 624, 1861.
  • Skull of Tiger, from Second Edition, volume 2, page 780, 1888.

    Skull of Tiger, from Second Edition, volume 2, page 780, 1888.

Architecture

For this resource, two separate categories, architecture and domestic objects, have been combined. One category deals with the structure of buildings, one category deals with the interior furnishings.

  • Bed of Ware, from First Edition, volume 1, page 790, 1860.

    Bed of Ware, from First Edition, volume 1, page 790, 1860.
  • Bed of Ware, from Second Edition, volume 2, page 11, 1888.

    Bed of Ware, from Second Edition, volume 2, page 11, 1888.
  • Colosseum, from First Edition, volume 1, page 214, 1860.

    Colosseum, from First Edition, volume 1, page 214, 1860.
  • Colosseum-Interior, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 238, 1888.

    Colosseum-Interior, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 238, 1888.

Microorganisms

Microorganisms as a category nearly doubled proportionally from the first edition to the second edition, as bacteriology became a new scientific area of study.

  • Amoebae copied from Greene's Manual of Protozoa, from First Edition, volume 5, page 96, 1863.

    Amoebae copied from Greene's Manual of Protozoa, from First Edition, volume 5, page 96, 1863.
  • Different kinds of bacteria, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 649, 1888.

    Different kinds of bacteria, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 649, 1888.

Maps

The preface to the second edition highlights:

"A considerable addition has been made to the number of Maps, always an important feature in a work of reference; and amongst these are a series of carefully executed Physical maps."
  • Isobarometric lines during storms, from First Edition, volume 9, page 149, 1867.

    Isobarometric lines during storms, from First Edition, volume 9, page 149, 1867.
  • North Polar Chart, from Second Edition, volume 8, page 276, 1891.

    North Polar Chart, from Second Edition, volume 8, page 276, 1891.

Human and mythic figures

Many illustrations in this category are drawn from paintings, sculpture, reliefs or from historic objects such as coins or vases. The human figure depicted is the dominant visual representation in the image. Representations of humans and mythic figures as a subject category drops by one third between editions. That is because many humans and mythic figures that appear in the first edition are in pictorial illustration style. However, when depictions of humans and mythic figures appear in the second edition, they seem to be in either schematic style or in facsimile style.

  • Apollo Belvedere, from First Edition, volume 1, page 315, 1860.

    Apollo Belvedere, from First Edition, volume 1, page 315, 1860.
  • Apollo Belvedere, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 336, 1888.

    Apollo Belvedere, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 336, 1888.
  • Bayeux Tapestry: The crown offered to Harold by the people, from First Edition, volume 1, page 366, 1860.

    Bayeux Tapestry: The crown offered to Harold by the people, from First Edition, volume 1, page 366, 1860.
  • Part of Bayeux Tapestry-Battle of Hastings, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 807, 1888.

    Part of Bayeux Tapestry-Battle of Hastings, from Second Edition, volume 1, page 807, 1888.
  • Portion of Panathenaic Frieze, from First Edition volume 1, 1860 and volume 4, 1862.

    Portion of Panathenaic Frieze, from First Edition volume 1, 1860 and volume 4, 1862.
  • Part of the Frieze of the Parthenon - Elgin Marbles, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 293, 1889.

    Part of the Frieze of the Parthenon - Elgin Marbles, from Second Edition, volume 4, page 293, 1889.
  • Chinese-matchmakers, from First Edition, volume 2, page 817, 1861.

    Chinese-matchmakers, from First Edition, volume 2, page 817, 1861.
  • Japanese Ambassadors to Europe 1872 (From a photography by Vernon Heath), from First Edition, volume 5, page 684, 1863.

    Japanese Ambassadors to Europe 1872 (From a photography by Vernon Heath), from First Edition, volume 5, page 684, 1863.
  • Head of Thothmes III, from First Edition, volume 3, page 790, 1862.

    Head of Thothmes III, from First Edition, volume 3, page 790, 1862.
  • Fig. 13-Head of Nefert from Meydum. (Boulak Museum), from Second Edition, volume 4, page 239, 1889.

    Fig. 13-Head of Nefert from Meydum. (Boulak Museum), from Second Edition, volume 4, page 239, 1889.
  • Confucius, from Second Edition, volume 3, page 411, 1889.

    Confucius, from Second Edition, volume 3, page 411, 1889.
  • Illustration for the history of wood engraving depicting a completed wood block, from First and Second Editions, volume 10, 1868 and 1892.

    Illustration for the history of wood engraving depicting a completed wood block, from First and Second Editions, volume 10, 1868 and 1892.
  • Life-belt, from Second Edition, volume 6, page 619, 1890.

    Life-belt, from Second Edition, volume 6, page 619, 1890.
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